For additional publications, please see Prof. Rickard's vita.

Gupta, M.W., Pan, S.C. & Rickard, T.C. Prior episodic learning and the efficacy of retrieval practice. Mem Cogn (2021).

Pan, S.C., Rickard, T.C. & Bjork, R.A. Does Spelling Still Matter—and If So, How Should It Be Taught? Perspectives from Contemporary and Historical Research. Educ Psychol Rev (2021).

Rickard, T. C. (2020). Extension of the dual-memory model of test-enhanced learning to distributions and individual differences. Psychonomic bulletin & review.

Pan, S. C., Lovelett, J. T., Phun, V., & Rickard, T. C. (2019). The Synergistic Benefits of Systematic and Random Interleaving for Second Language Grammar Learning. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 8(4), 450-462.

Pan, S. C., Tajran, J., Lovelett, J., Osuna, J., & Rickard, T. C. (2019). Does interleaved practice enhance foreign language learning? The effects of training schedule on Spanish verb conjugation skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(7), 1172.

Pan, S. C., Hutter, S. A., D'Andrea, D., Unwalla, D., & Rickard, T. C. (2019). In search of transfer following cued recall practice: The case of process‐based biology concepts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 33(4), 629-645.

Heidemann, F., Rickard, T. C., Schubert, T., & Strobach, T. (2019). Dual-memory retrieval efficiency after practice: effects of strategy manipulations. Psychological Research, 1-27.

Orscheschek, F., Strobach, T., Schubert, T., & Rickard, T. (2019). Two retrievals from a single cue: A bottleneck persists across episodic and semantic memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72(5), 1005-1028.

Pan, S. C., Lovelett, J., Stoeckenius, D., & Rickard, T. C. (2019). Conditions of highly specific learning through cued recall. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 26(2), 634-640.

Pan, S. C., Cooke, J., Little, J. L., McDaniel, M. A., Foster, E. R., Connor, L. T., & Rickard, T. C. (2019). Online and clicker quizzing on jargon terms enhances definition-focused but not conceptually focused biology exam performance. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 18(4), ar54.

Pan, S. C., and Rickard, T. C. (2018). Transfer of test-enhanced learning: meta-analytic review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin 144(7), 710-756. doi:

Pan, S. C., and Rickard, T. C. (2017). Does retrieval practice enhance learning and transfer relative to restudy for term-definition facts? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 23(3), 278-292. doi: 10.1037/xap0000124

Rickard, T. C., and Pan, S. C. (2017). A dual memory theory of the testing effect. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 25(3), 847-869. doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1298-4

Rickard, T. C., and Pan, S. C. (2017). Time for considering the possibility that sleep plays no unique role in motor memory consolidation. Psychological Bulletin 143(4), 454-458. doi: 10.1037/bul0000094

Pan, S. C., Wong, C. M., Potter, Z. E., Mejia, J., and Rickard, T. C. (2016). Does test-enhanced learning transfer for triple associates? Memory & Cognition 44(1), 24-36. doi: 10.3758/s13421-015-0547-x

Pan, S. C., Gopal, A., and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Testing with feedback produces potent, but piecewise, learning of history and biology facts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(4).

Pan, S. C., Rubin, B. R., and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 21(4).

Pan, S. C., Pashler, H., Potter, Z. E., & Rickard, T. C. (2015). Testing enhances learning across a range of episodic memory abilities. Journal of Memory and Language, 83, 53-61.

Jones, A. C., Wardlow-Lane, L., Pan, S. C., Zepeda, C., Heyman, G. D., Dunlosky, J., and Rickard, T. C. (2015). Beyond the rainbow: Retrieval practice leads to better learning than rainbow writing.Educational Psychology Review.

Pan, S. C. & Rickard, T. C. (2015). Sleep and motor memory: Is there room for consolidation? Psychological Bulletin, 141(4), 812-834.

Walker, D., Bajic, D., Mickes, L., Kwak, J., & Rickard, T. C. (2014). Specificity of children’s arithmetic learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 122, 62-74.

Walker, D., Mickes, L., Bajic, D., Nailon, C. R., & Rickard, T. C. (2013). A test of two methods of arithmetic fluency training and implications for educational practice. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 2(1), 25-32.

Bajic, D., Kwak, J., & Rickard, T. C. (2011). Specificity of learning through memory retrieval practice: The case of addition and subtraction. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18(6), 1148-1155.

Bajic, D., & Rickard, T. C. (2011). Toward a generalized theory of the shift to retrieval in cognitive skill learning. Memory & Cognition, 39(7), 1147-1161.

Bajic, D., & Rickard, T. C. (2009). The temporal dynamics of strategy execution in cognitive skill learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35(1), 113-121.

Rickard, T. C., Cai, D. J., Rieth, C. A., Jones, J., & Ard, M. C. (2008). Sleep does not enhance motor sequence learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34(4), 834-842.

Rickard, T. C., Lau, J. S., & Pashler, H. (2008). Spacing and the transition from calculation to retrieval. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15(3), 656-661.

Rickard, T. C. (2007). Forgetting and Learning Potentiation: Dual Consequences of Between-Session Delays in Cognitive Skill Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33(2), 297-304.

Rickard, T. C., & Bajic, D. (2006). Cued Recall from Image and Sentence Memory: A Shift from Episodic to Identical Elements Representation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(4), 734-748.

Franco-Watkins, A. M., Pashler, H., & Rickard, T. C. (2006). Does working memory load lead to greater impulsivity? Commentary on Hinson, Jameson, and Whitney (2003). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(2), 443-447.

Rickard, T. C., & Verfaellie, M., & Grafman, J. (2006). Transverse Patterning and Human Amnesia. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(10), 1723-1733.

Romero, S. G., Rickard, T. C., & Bourne, L. E., Jr. (2006). Verification of multiplication facts: An investigation using retrospective protocols. American Journal of Psychology, 119(1), 87-120.

Rickard, T. C., & Pashler, H. (2005). A Bottleneck in Memory Retrieval from a Single Cue. Center for Human Information Processing Technical Report 2005-01.

Rickard, T. C., & Bajic, D. (2005). In search of cross-talk facilitation in a dual-cued recall task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(4), 750-767.

Rickard, T. C. (2005). A revised identical elements model of arithmetic fact representation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(2), 250-257.

Rickard, T. C., & Bajic, D. (2004). Memory retrieval given two independent cues: Cue selection or parallel access? Cognitive Psychology, 48(3), 243-294.

Rickard, T. C. (2004). Strategy execution in cognitive skill learning: an item-level test of candidate models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 30(1), 65-82.

Rickard, T. C., & Bajic, D. (2003). Automatic mediation or absence of mediation? Commentary on Crutcher and Ericsson (2000). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 29(6), 1381-1386.

Nino, R. S., & Rickard, T. C. (2003). Practice effects on two memory retrievals from a single cue. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 29(3), 373-388.

Rickard, T. C., Romero, S. G., Basso, G., Wharton, C., Flitman, S., & Grafman, J. (2000). The calculating brain: an fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 38(3), 325-335.

Rickard, T. C. (1999). A CMPL alternative account of practice effects in numerosity judgment tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 25(2), 532-542.

Bourne, L. E., Healy, A. F., Parker, J. T., & Rickard, T. C. (1999). The strategic basis of performance in binary classification tasks: Strategy choices and strategy transitions. Journal of Memory & Language, 41(2), 223-252.

Rickard, T. C., & Grafman, J. (1998). Losing their configural mind: Amnesic patients fail on transverse patterning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10(4), 509-524.

Rickard, T. C. (1997). Bending the power law: A CMPL theory of strategy shifts and the automatization of cognitive skills. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 126(3), 288-311.

Rickard, T. C., & Bourne, L. E. J. (1996). Some tests of an identical elements model of basic arithmetic skills. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 22(5), 1281-1295.

Rickard, T. C., Healy, A. F., & Bourne, L. E. (1994). On the cognitive structure of basic arithmetic skills: operation, order, and symbol transfer effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 20(5), 1139-1153.